Using linux from within windows: ubuntu bash, compiling c++, and more

There are a few ways to install and run C++ (or any other programming languages) from windows. For me at least, the easiest by far is to use the windows subsystem for linux (wsl).
This essentially gives the best of both worlds - allowing you to (for example) use windows tools to manage and edit code, while still having full access to linux tools for compiling and running the code.

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Ubuntu (bash) on Windows 10

You can now run ubuntu bash straight from windows 10. For many, this may be a better option that trying to dual boot or run a full virtual machine. It's command-line only (though it does allow screen-forwarding), and gives basic linux functionality without the resource-hog of a full virtual machine, and without the pain or hassle of dual booting.
This post just has a couple of extra steps/tips that helped me make this a much more usable feature.

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LaTeX

LaTeX is a high-quality typesetting system; it includes features designed for the production of technical and scientific documentation.  LaTeX is pretty much the standard in scientific writing and is an invaluable tool, particularly for mathematical typesetting. Better yet, LaTeX is open-source freeware which means anyone can download and use it for free.

Latex (for pc/mac/linux) can be obtained from: http://www.latex-project.org/ftp.html (note: it's quite a large download.) Also, if you use Linux,  LaTeX was probably provided with your distribution.

LaTeX can be a little complicated to use at first, but the two best resources are;

The Not-so-Short Introduction to LaTeX (pdf), and The  LaTeX WikiBooks page.

I have also written a short introduction, that may be useful as a quick-start guide.  It doesn't have everything, but if you just want to get started it has enough - and being only a page or so, is much easier than trying to wade through the larger documents above.

download: pdf with verbatim code

Latex guide: compilable code (right click, 'save link as'...)